French Journal For Media Research

Cielo Salviolo et Carolina Di Palma

Discursive interpellation, metadata and algorithmic combinations in digital interfaces: new strategic political meanings for thinking about public digital convergence and new rights of children

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2Cet article propose un travail de recherche dans l'instance de reconnaissance sur les usages et les appropriations de la consommation culturelle interactive des enfances actuelles dans la région nord de la Province de Buenos Aires en Argentine. L'observation située sur le terrain et les entretiens approfondis du point de vue des études culturelles latino-américaines débouchent sur une approche des déplacements culturels actuels associés aux processus de subjectivation on-off line des enfances actuelles à l'heure de la consommation de jeux vidéo, de réseaux sociaux et de séries en ligne, l'analyse des contextes situés d'appropriation et des significations que les garçons et les filles attribuent à leur consommation. La nouvelle économie, les capitalismes de plateformes et de connectivité, rendent aujourd'hui possibles de nouvelles formes d'extraction de revenus dans la consommation, à travers de nouveaux modèles économiques basés sur la monétisation du temps libre, l'extractivisme des données et l'économie de l'attention. Cette situation nous oblige à réfléchir, dans la perspective de la convergence numérique publique pour les enfants, à la manière de garantir les droits des enfants d'aujourd'hui dans les environnements numériques et de repenser les nouveaux droits qui rendent possibles les politiques de prise en charge.

3Mots-clés : interactivité - biopolitique - gouvernementalité algorithmique - jeux vidéo - convergence numérique - simulation virtuelle - enfance - processus de subjectivation.


5Research work in the instance of recognition on uses and appropriations of interactive cultural consumption of current childhoods in the northern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Situated field observation and in-depth interviews from the point of view of Latin American Cultural Studies result in an approach to current cultural displacements associated with the processes of on-off line subjectivation of current childhoods in times of consumption of video games, social networks and online series. Analysis of the situated contexts of appropriation and the meanings that boys and girls assign to their consumption. New Economy, capitalisms of platforms and connectivity, make possible today new forms of income extraction in consumption, through new business models based on the monetization of leisure time, data extractivism and the economy of attention. This situation challenges let us to think, from the public digital convergence of children, how to guarantee the rights of today's children in digital environments and how to rethink new rights that make care policies possible.


7Keywords:  interactivity – biopolitics - algorithmic governmentality - video games - digital convergence - virtual simulation - childhood - subjectivation processes.


8The digitization of the electromagnetic spectrum, interactive non-linear narratives, virtual simulation, hypermedia narratives, and algorithmic combinations on the metadata of children connected to the Internet, give an account of cultural transformations in a new diagram of forces that enables in this historical moment what is said, audible and visible, and makes invisible other content. In terms of representation, interactive digital screens propose new horizons of interpellation that summon new processes of subjectivation.  Social representations today are produced in environments of digitization of the electromagnetic spectrum and are consumed in a differentiated way according to the contexts of appropriation and within predetermined hardware and software options. A type of articulation of current identities takes place in an articulation on-off line (Ramirez Cabanzo, A),  that associates subjectivation processes of childhoods inside and outside the screens. The interpellation discourses and representations produced by the telecommunications industry from the screens propose new disputes for the hegemony of the common sense of the new generations. Boys and girls no longer watch television with unidirectional narratives, but mostly consume interactive hypermedia narratives on YouTube, series, and cartoons that they can watch whenever they choose through streaming platforms. The modes of consumption are in marathon format without interruption. In addition, they spend most of their leisure time playing on multi-player platforms, video games, and social networks. This reorganization of the spaces of visibility and narration modes demands us, on the one hand, to deepen the critical analysis to ensure in digital environments what has been achieved with Human Rights, Children's Rights, and the Right to Communication. On the other hand, we glimpse the need to think about new rights due to a new technicality carrying proposals that question new forms of identity production and social relations, in a broader context of new forms of government and business models that we will explain later in this document.

9For 12 years we have worked in the digital convergence area of the children's public television channel Pakapaka, conceptualizing, developing, and implementing interactive non-linear contents that would accompany the channel's philosophy and audiovisual programming.  At the same time, we were doing situated qualitative field research with the objective of recognizing current transformations in the cultural consumption of children and their processes of subjectivation. 

10The latest field research we conducted in 2018, 2019 and 2020, has shown us that children were falling asleep in school class because they had been spending all night trying to get to the next level in Fortnite, Free fire, Among us, Plants vs Zombies, among other games. From this fieldwork, we observed that whoever stopped playing, i.e. paused the game, lost energy or life, or interrupted the game in any way was excluded from his clan or team. In this context, we realized that multiplayer community games had removed the option of pausing the game. That is, the current video games were played online, connected to the Internet and without interruption, with a new game mode called Battle Royale where everyone played against everyone else, with the ultimate goal of leaving one last player alive. The rituality established in the daily life of the new generations was consolidated by watching series to infinity, in a digital game that proposed interpellation horizons of consumption without pause.

11There were then some key issues that were decisive to reconsider current rights and especially what we conceive as the Right to Communication. On the one hand, the digitalization of the spectrum that made possible new codes and languages to narrate the world, to narrate oneself and others. On the other hand, new supports for expression and visibility such as digital environments and virtual simulation with new expressive potentials, but also with the collection and algorithmic combination of metadata within the screens in the moments of connectivity and consumption inside the New Economy (Marazzi, C. 2014).


12For ten years we have conducted field research in the recognition of interactive cultural consumption of the new childhoods in Teacher Training Institutes of Buenos Aires Province, and from the internal digital convergence team of Pakapaka, the tv public channel for children in the republic of Argentina. In addition, in February 2020, from the channel we devised a laboratory for experimentation and research of new non-linear narratives that we call MINILAB1. From there, we would give continuity to the qualitative research of situated field with the objective of recognizing the new processes of subjectivation of the new childhoods in the context of a new technicality (Barbero, JM, 2004).

13The proposal to reflect together on the transformations of contemporary sensibility consists in thinking of digital technology as a new technicality (Barbero, JM, 2006) and not in an instrumental way as proposed by the educommunication point of view. A technicality means that some new device appears at a given historical moment, in the midst of cultural transformations that enable new processes of subjectivation, or, in other words, promote new ways of being in the world. By this we imply that, in this case, interactive digital devices have the potential to question, through different discourses of digital culture, the new generations, proposing modes of behavior, ways of embodying bodies, and ways of inhabiting times and spaces that are not those of modernity. They also structure new forms of sociality, because although screens propose some possible models of inhabiting the world, today's bodies also engage in all kinds of dialogues involving resistance, concessions and negotiations, according to the contexts of everyday life and singular and collective experiences.

14In this moment of historical transformation it is complex to give a name childhood to this field of research, which is the target of our analysis, audiences and users of our content production. To say new generations to this field could be to refer us to what modernity considered as childhoods. But, as we all know, that statute of modern childhood is overflowing, and this contemporary overflow has been developed by several authors of communication and education in our country: Sandra Carli, Patricia Redondo, Silvia Duvchatsky, Chicky González and Adriana Puigross from. In turn, Cristina Corea and Ignacio Lewcowicks, Roxana Mordochowicks and Carolina Duek more recently, also from Argentina, among others, offer analyses on these highly complex and interesting contemporary digital transformations. Likewise with international authors such as David Buckingham in England, or Flávia Pires in Brazil and Ana Brizet Cabanzo in Colombia, who are currently conducting virtual ethnography and on-off line ethnography with children analyzing new transmedia narratives. Regarding research on childhood, representations, participation and rights, it seems important to introduce what Belén Fernández and Jorge Huergo, representatives of Latin American cultural studies, explained in the book Cultura Escolar y Cultura Mediática: "The definition of childhood was consolidated through the family and schooling, fundamental organizing nuclei of the modern project. Modernity assigned to childhood a place where one could become an adult and learn how to be someone. Varela and Álvarez Uría defined childhood in modernity as an incomplete stage of life that had to go through a long experience to become a full subject of rights while institutions, family, school and state decided for him/her, because he/she was considered incapable of doing so... When the individual was born he/she found a culture, a law, a game that was alien to him/her and that defined him/her, an example was the assignment of the name given to him/her by his/her parents. Therefore, the subject "child" implies a concrete subject, in a historical and social context. That is why it is better to speak of matrices of childhoods and new meanings of childhood". (Huergo & Fernandez, Belen, 2000, pp. 158-159).

15Jesus Martin Barbero, also representative of de latinoamerican Cultural Studies from Colombia, did a great job of reconnaissance research and analysis of the transformations of the consumption from the mediations (Barbero, JM, 2004) point of view resignifying the analysis of the media definitively. The author also introduced in Latin America several analyzes of the cultural consumption transformations associated with a new tecnicity (Barbero, JM, 2006) that transformed a sensorioum of epoch proposing new horizons of interpellation for children and youth.

16For this article we will take up some contemporary conceptions that Ana Brizet from cultural studies in Colombia brings us when she analyzes new processes of subjectivity formation in off-on-line continuities (Ramirez Cabanzo, B, 2014). We are interested in thinking not only about analogical organic childhoods but also about their doubles or metadata in the digital wave. Ana Brizet explains in the presentation of her doctoral thesis at the National University of La Plata in 2015 that thinking about the condition of childhoods today implies saying that contemporary cyberculture environments constitute a large part of the world of children's lives and, therefore, their experience cannot be defined unless, among other things, it is technologically mediated. It is necessary, according to the author, to recognize the processes of subjectivity formation of the new childhoods that develop with specific narratives that show their processes of subjectivation and that have new forms of interaction with new technological repertoires. She explains that these are new narratives that manifest other modes of biographical development, new visibilities and forms of experience. She further broadens by describing that narratives from hypertextuality transform the textuality of literate culture and reveal other forms of writing and reading in digital convergence. And so she introduces the notion of media convergence, when she argues that the convergence of traditional and electronic media creates environments that widen the cognitive and expressive possibilities of subjects by integrating virtuality and reality as layers of the same entity. Environments and continuities that enable modes of knowledge production where children exercise their power, their feeling, their doing. Off-on-line continuities of this new socio-technical paradigm, which arise from the fluidity of the temporalities that lie between the offline and the online. (Ramirez Cabanzo,B, 2013).

17In relation to the rights of children (children as a term that we should reconsider today because of how they are being questioned by the telecommunications industry from the screens), we can also raise and in relation to these processes of current subjectivation, the inevitable transformation consequences of the Right to Communication with the implementation of the Global Information Society2, Internet Governance3 and Connecting the World4 programs (all programs of the G7 and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)). The fact that the electromagnetic spectrum is digitized, makes possible the social communication circulation to happen on digital platforms that use the people's metadata associated to an IP of devices. The potenciality of the new Internet connection devices makes possible the collection and combination through algorithms of all this information released for the purpose of probabilistic prediction of behaviors and new business models associated with the economy of attention (Lazaratto,M 2018) and monetization of interactive leisure time ( Srnicek, G, 2020) always within predetermined choices of software and hardware.

18Due to these reasons, which are related to a specificity in this historical transformation, from the research work and the production of interactive digital contents, naming the new generations demands us, at least, to position ourselves in the position of listening to these new narratives that give testimony of new ways of being in the world. Therefore, this work reflects the investigation5 and monitoring work in the field regarding the recognition of the uses, appropriations and meanings that children give to their consumption.

19Thus, our starting point arises out of a school field research6, where we asked the children what they watched on TV, to which they answered that they did not watch TV, stood up from their desks, and decided going to the blackboard to write the names of their favorite youtubers, (Di Palma, 2017) without being asked to do so. This event that took place in the field gave us that novelty that made us know that something was there, that something had changed that we didn't know about. The same thing happened when a school principal from low-income sectors informed us that we should not do an investigation on digital cultural consumption because the children did not have access to new technologies. When we showed up and started to ask, all of them had a cell phone or tablet belonging to their parents, siblings or friends-peers, so we had to rethink the research again in the same field. We realized that in order to think about current rights we needed a time of pause to think about the new and to listen to the voice of the new generations. This meant an immersion in the vocabulary universe (Freire, P, 1986), of the uses and appropriations that current children make of their interactive cultural consumption. It is not that the new generations are elsewhere, but that they inhabit other discursive practices and that, above all, they are performative of what was new, what is new and what is to come.

Research methodology

20Starting from a conception of culture as both a symbolic and material production (Williams, 1981), the proposal was to investigate in groups through participatory observation and in-depth interviews, in situated fields (Guber, R, 2001) such as home environments, school classrooms and cyber cafes, uses and appropriations of interactive cultural consumption of the new generations with the aim of recognizing (Huergo, J, 2013) the vocabulary universe (Freire,P, 1986) of the new childhoods and youths with which they produce their ways of being in the world.

21As Jesús Martin Barbero says:

“We live in a moment of revolution of technicalities where digital communication opens the possibility of a common language of data, texts, sounds, images and videos, dismantling the dualistic rationalist hegemony that opposed the sensitive or emotional to the intelligible, reason to imagination, science to art, culture to technique, the book to audiovisual media, opening a new configuration of public space linked to a new citizenship.” (Barbero, 2006, pp. 16-17).

22For this reason, our focus from the beginning was on the cultural transformations associated with this new technicality and not on the instrumental use of new technologies. A technicality means that some new device appears at a given historical moment, in the midst of cultural transformations that enable new processes of subjectivation. As a result, they propose modes of behavior, ways of embodying bodies, ways of inhabiting times and spaces that are not the ones we knew. Moreover, discursive plots make possible new forms of sociality. And while screens propose some possible models of inhabiting the world, bodies and their discursive practices, which are performative, also engage in all kinds of dialogues involving resistance, concessions and negotiations, according to the contexts of everyday life. (Barbero,JM, 2006).

23Our work aimed to reflect on the diagram of forces in which new power-knowledge relations are becoming visible (Deleuze,G, 2015) that propose some possible horizons of interpellation. We argue that digital interactive media also propose models of identification that dispute common sense in childhood in that online/offline continuum (Ramirez Cabanzo, A, 2015) that makes possible today's new devices: ways of seeing, feeling and acting, thematic agendas, ways of relating and resolving conflicts, of making a body. And, as Jorge Huergo also said, the media senses that proliferate are not "outside" as an object, but have become culture, have become threads in the cultural fabric. (Huergo, J, 2013)

24Focusing on the processes where the offline subjectivity production is articulated (Ramirez Cabanzo, A, 2009) enables us to think about the types of articulations of physical-territorial and digital-virtual spaces generated to inhabit the frameworks of everyday life where interactive cultural consumption is inserted. This means considering how they articulate the context of appropriation in homes and rooms at the same time they inhabit, through virtual avatars, the digital game environments. How the dispute for the common sense is established from the proposed consumption plots and how this determines, conditions or questions the common sense installed in the off-line territorial spaces. How does the algorithmic segmentation within the screens affect my bonds and appreciations of diversity outside the screens. Which of the modes of sociality within the game influences the relationships outside the game, etc.

Situated field work

25The research work was carried out in the framework of teacher training courses in the province of Buenos Aires, ISFD 39, within the framework of the Culture, Communication and Education curricular unit of the second year of Primary Education. Forty students participated and interviewed 71 girls and boys from the Northern region of the Province of Buenos Aires. The ages of the interviewees ranged from 5 to 12 years. 15 to 20 years old. The interactive cultural consumptions analyzed were Free Fire, FortniIte, Minecraft, Call of Duty, Youtuber Federico Vegevani, Yotubers Los polinesios, BangTangSonyeodan Korean Pop, Pup Academy, Clarence, TikTok, POkemon Go, "Brawl stars", Among us, Assassin 's Creed, Counter-Strike: Global Offensive, Plato, DAYs gone, Yu-Gi-Oh Duel Links.

26From the beginning of the classes, we proposed to the students a situated fieldwork (Gubber, R, 2001), developed in groups, in the instance of recognition (Huergo,J, 2005) with the aim of addressing the contemporary transformations associated with the subjectivity of the new generations. Participant observation and virtual ethnography were carried out to investigate the new literacies, ways of narrating and languages associated with the new devices and expressive potentialities. In-depth interviews were conducted with children to approach the forms of appropriation and consumption in a new reorganization of power dynamics, with different forms of socialization, different ways of inhabiting new temporalities, spatialities and corporealities.

Instrument: Observation and Analysis Guide 

27What is described below is the guide of orienting axes to elaborate inquiries in the contexts of appropriation of interactive cultural consumption and to conduct in-depth interviews with boys and girls. Based on the methodological proposal of Jesus Martin Barbero in his text from Media to Mediations (Barbero, 1987) and on the theoretical developments of Carlos Garcia Canclini (2005) on cultural consumption, the guide was devised in 2015 by Jorge Huergo, the theoretical reference of the career of Communication Sciences in the Province of Buenos Aires for having created the assembly and open Curricular Designs, which relate for the first time in Argentina Communication and Education in teacher training.  The observation guide breaks down into categories the hegemonic production of common sense that takes place in the on-off line continuity of the life contexts of children: representations, meanings, identifications, rituals, routines, among others that we will describe in detail below. In the years 2020 and 2021 we added some categories that we considered would help us to get closer to the current transformations. One was game transformations and pandemic by the increase of digital consumption due to isolation. Another was monetization within the wefts of cultural consumption in order to discern and specify proposed business models. And off-line articulation of lifestyles that increasingly articulated life in physical territorial spaces and virtual environments simulated through connectivity, credit cards and senses of belonging.

On the Axis of Representations

28The first axis of the observation and analysis guide is related to the axis of representations. The idea is to analyze the discursive plots that the market puts into circulation through digital media culture, in this case video games, series and social networks. Representations include proposals of possible worlds, values, forms of social relations and, above all, horizons of interpellation.

On the Meanings Axis

29In this axis the focus is on the voice of the children, what are the meanings and senses that the new generations give to their consumption. What do they play, what do they like, why do they play, what would be the fun of these games: these are some of the questions that provoke the children to talk and tell about the uses and appropriations they make of these games. The analysis has the children's testimony in quotation marks, without any writing modifications. It is important how they say it and the cuts they make of what they tell about video games, series and social networks.

On the Identifications Axis

30The identifications axis analyzes how the characters with which the children identify themselves are. What powers they have, what abilities, what dances they can perform, what their personality traits are like: these are some of the questions we asked in the field. On the one hand, it is interesting to see what horizons of interpellation the market offers and, on the other hand, to pay attention to the qualities that the children value. In this sense, the plots of the characters, how they relate to each other and what places they occupy in the narrative allow us to observe forms of current identity construction. The questioning discourses propose ways of being in the world, and the girls and boys appropriate and re-signify them in unique ways.

On the Axis of Uses and Access

31The axis of uses and accesses is related to the ways girls and boys have to access consumption, that is, from where they do it, with what devices, with whom, what commands they use, whether or not they have connectivity, if they use data, among others. The same happens with the way and modes in which they make use of the consumptions. In this case, we put in the voice of the children the ways in which they tell us how they appropriate what the industry proposes through video games, series and social networks. In this axis, very interesting questions arise about how the interfaces are used and the predetermined options of the possible movements and functionality that they enable.

On the Axis Desires and Pleasures

32This axis tries to elucidate and observe where desire, pleasure or affections operate when girls and boys consume video games, series and social networks. When it generates joy, anger, rage, when they dance, when they laugh, how fashion intervenes. Market strategies work on these issues and consumption as an instance of production of meaning and performativity does it in turn from these instances of appropriation, always within the production of culture, which is historical and situated.

On the Rituality and Everyday Life Axis

33This axis focuses on the way in which common sense is organized in everyday life and on how consumption is inserted in a broader plot of social organization that is naturalized. Rituals that are installed in everyday life reproduce new established orders and are normalized as part of everyday life. These routines that are consolidated in the daily life of the new generations have their origin in the modes of interpellation of interactive cultural consumption. There are patterns of constant updating that demand a certain daily routine in order to meet objectives, obtain benefits and not be left out of the game, networks and topics. On the other hand, there are also routines that are related to the lifestyles and ways of life of the adult caregivers with whom the boys and girls live. All this is assembled in a cultural framework that only makes sense when one closely observes the production of daily life.

On the On-off line Articulations Axis

34This axis attends to the processes of current subjectivation, which are not only real or virtual, but which function articulated and in continuity. From consumption, relationships are established between the online and the offline. Forms of playing that are related to one environment and another, social ties, forms of monetization, merchandising purchases, issues related to routines and the way of inhabiting bodies are key to account for the desires and pleasures of the new generations but also the consequences on the organic body and the current sufferings.

On the Interactivity and Movement Axis

35This axis places special emphasis on the current expressive transformation provided by the digital devices of interactivity. As an expressive potential, it enables the movement and action of what used to be the spectator. This as an option for participation led us to ask ourselves with what purpose girls and boys move. On the one hand, with what meaning do the telecommunications industries enable the moment? And, on the other hand, with what sense do boys move when this is enabled? When do they move online and when offline? Why, in each case? What are the objectives of the movement and what are the ways in which they can move in each case? This instance also brings associated transformations of corporeality that we are interested in investigating.

On the Monetization Axis

36This axis focuses on the plot of new business models in which digital consumption is inserted. We investigate all the strategies put in place by the market linked to game currencies, real and virtual, benefits obtained from real money, season updates, battle pass, algorithmic recommendations and monetization. In addition, we studied the forms of covert advertising carried out through events, influencers and offline marketing proposals through merchandising, life, skins. This particular axis has been addressed in Di Palma (2020). 


37We will now outline some of the current displacements that we observed from the approach to the situated field of this research. The interpretations of discursive practices carried out by cultural studies always refer to the fields it analyzes without claiming generalization. The continuities we found in this analysis are inserted in a conjuncture of broader cultural transformations that give meaning to the specificity of these displacements linked to a new technicality. (Barbero, JM, 2013).

38In our research we observed that these simulated spaces had the power to create worlds such as the ones we inhabit in physical spaces and build new ones, always provided that the carnal body, which is outside, connected to an interface, recharges energies and stops at some point to sustain a period of movement and rest. These new ways of being in the on-off line continuity demanded a post-organic body (Sibilia, P, 2010), that is, a body intervened with technology to make up for the finitude and wear and tear of the organic. Regarding ways of thinking, the belief that "everything is possible" and "as I wish" in this uninterrupted being on the net, we discovered, was transforming the common sense of the new generations and legitimized an unlimited and uninterrupted expenditure of energy, of their own free will.

Taiel, 10 years old: “When I asked him, he told me that “an open world means that you can go wherever you want and the world is infinite and it will never end”.

Candela 10 años: Juego porque los puedo jugar en todo tiempo, al juego que yo elija, porque hay un montón de juegos. Tiene personajes, te podes poner cualquiera, pero hay algunos que valon robux, que es como plata, que en realidad se compra con plata real”

Lucas, 12 years old: “Blocks are destroyed and built. You can do whatever you want, for example, cut trees, get stones, coal to make torches or cook. Those things. Oh and you can also put "creative" which is a game mode in which you are neither hungry, nor hearts, nor monsters attacking you. You can do everything without worrying about those things. It's great!"

Candela 10años: “A mi me gusta Battle Royale Tycoon.” (Magnate de la batalla real). “Se trata de muchos juegos que puedo jugar, y yo puedo elegir cualquiera, el que más me guste. Hay muchos juegos que puedo jugar, que jugué muchos pero que todavía no jugué tantos, solo algunos porque hay muchos juegos que puedo elegir, y hay algunos que no me gustan.”

Juana, 11 years old, on Tik Tok: “The videos are made entering the middle, there will always be a “plus (+)” where you have to enter, the videos are made there, the effects are next to it to record, that you can choose from there any effects and moves depend on how you want to do. And to record sixty seconds you have to press down where it records, “fifteen” will appear and next to it “sixty” will appear.

39Figure 1: Advertising Play Station 3 “Vive e Estado Play” - Acces Play Station official web site Live in play

Image 10000000000001D70000011C81B5F05CD168983E.png

40Figure 2: Advertising Play Station 3. “Long live play” - Access Play Station official web site

Image 10000000000002280000013B661E7AEDE21561F6.png

41Figure 3: Disney Infinity - Access Disney Inifity web page

Image 1000000000000183000000932049E99F606EA495.png

42In this context, the new childhoods and youths spend a large part of their day in virtual videogame spaces, multiplayer communities, and social networks, watching series and surfing the Internet. One part of their organic bodies lives offline by mechanically operating the commands of the devices and the other part, their virtual double, lives online using their cognitive energy every time they play or surf. When the new generations enter virtual spaces they have already naturalized the idea that this is possible on the net, and the demand of the series and videogame industries is that of uninterrupted consumption.

Ciro: “Sometimes we pretend that we are in that world but in a real way, that is, we play at home that we are in the MineCraft world. He makes me his character and manages me and we also do the other way around "

Jesus 6 years old: “I play with Emi (there are three brothers, the one in the middle is Emi, Jesús is the youngest of the three, because I am one of those who are in the game and my brother is my enemy, so I run through the house and shoot my brother, but fake, and I always win”

Candela 10 years: "I like Battle Royale Tycoon." (battle royale tycoon). “There are many games that I can play, and I can choose any one, the one I like the most. There are many games that I can play, that I played many but I haven't played that many yet, just some because there are many games that I can choose, and there are some that I don't like.

43Figure 4: Advertising Disney multiplayer community. “Play without limits” - Access Disney Inifity web page

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44We observed that the sensibility produced by inhabiting an abstract digital numeric space had no record of death, pain or finitude through avatars or nicknames, and any vulnerability or fragility could be recomposed with the purchase of more lives or energy through big credit cards. 

45The disappearance of the pause in current video games, and series marathons, are examples of this transformation in demand that the organic body -with limited energy- cannot respond to.

Joaquin: “The new game mode is called battle royale (battle royale that combines survival with the gameplay of a last player) where there are 100 players on a map and they have to survive. They find boxes, supplies, medical kits and stuff... It's like you have to survive with that. Every time the area gets smaller and you have to get in there, there are fewer players left and the one who remains last is the one who wins”.

Nahuel 12 years on free fire-“There is a red zone, there they drop bombs, they come from the air. If you're alone and one falls on you, you die, but if you're in a group, they knock you down. It is also closing, it is getting smaller and smaller, until it is like a little hole, to avoid getting trapped you have to escape, since it makes you lose lives. There is also another area in which you can "spy" so you can help your partner or favor yourself, seeing where there is an opponent to kill him and that".

Candela, 10 years old: And what happens if they kill you? “If they kill me, look... they killed me! Now I appear at my house, at the checkpoint and I can buy more droppers, which are things that generate money and thus be able to finish the house faster. The checkpoint is a green square thing that if you get killed, you respawn there. I only have 20 lives, if I die 20 times, I have to start a new game.”

46Figure 5: Advertising Play Station 5 “Play has no limits “

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47The horizons of interpellation of the representations and discourse of video game series and social networks that we observed in this situated field, propose processes of subjectivation that produce gamer and users who consume, at the same time as they produce, first-person content. This mode of production is linked to the argument that appears repeatedly about fun and creation.

48The players/users who are challenged through the screens are traversed by the values of competition, victory, success and being the best. Team play is legitimized by values related to saving friends and destroying the enemy. In 2018, 2019 and 2020, the video game proposition of surviving in a battle of all against all, where the winner is the last one to survive, is unified. The representations of video games, series and social networks have in common to propose the ideas of the infinite game and that of an absolute freedom that depends solely on the will of the user.

Luciano 13-year-old: “To the little game of war”

Malena 14 years old: "After both fought, the villain shoots the father, two shots in the chest, throws him from the chair, leaving him in front of the son who was on the ground and the father is finished off with a shot in the head.

Luciano 11 years old: "diiieee", "Oh my God and the Virgin", "Male help me get through this part so they don't kill me", "Which way do I have to go?", "Oh no, oh no"

Malena: Generally she is quiet and concentrated but sometimes she says “Damn you killed me”, “Noooooo”, “Lucho is over there so they don't kill you”.

Mateo, 8 years old: “It's a game.... First I have to find a free place to build my house, and I have to build a safe house and also take care that they don't kill me. There are some small plates that are red, that if you touch them, it appears to be able to buy weapons to defend myself.

Juan 10 years on Free Fire: “Come on, run inside the house. I was inside they are shooting where you are Bro..I ran away...Come come I'll shoot you Take I. Follow me because in that house there are more people"

49Figure 6: Fortnite characters - Acces official web page

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50Figure 7: Battel Royal Fortnite skins - Access Fortnite web page

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51As a common sense, the idea of infinite play is installed: everything is possible in virtual space and digital consumption never ends. An idea of freedom also common in consumption without responsibility, a freedom that does not imply obligations in return, a distancing of power relations with adults, with a certain autonomy of consumption and movement in digital spaces. 

52On the other hand, the belief that disputes common sense in the new childhoods related to the fact that "everything is possible and as I like it on the web" and with the amount of stimuli to which children "must respond" to, challenged by the screens, generate new forms of control associated with an economy of attention and new business models of data extractivism. For the moment, and as organic bodies that need movement and rest, it is not possible to respond to all the demands that circulate inciting immediate action-reaction. Trying to respond to this infinite demand of stimuli, on the one hand, leads to the impossibility of stopping at some point and going deeper into complexity and, on the other hand, produces anxiety and frustration of not reaching the idea or the model. 

Ivan 11 years old about Free Fire: "This game that I play is very fun although sometimes it makes me angry, and it makes me very nervous but I still play it because it is very addictive. It makes me angry because losing is very frustrating in that game, because sometimes when they kill you they make fun of you by dancing. It's addictive because when you get angry you keep playing it, even though it causes something unpleasant and you have the hope that you can win in the next game”

Maximum 11 years on Free Fire: "The desires that the game produces in me is to win and improve. The pleasures it gives me depend on how the game ends, if I win I feel excited but if I lose I get angry but I keep playing . The desire that it produces in me is to be one of the best players and obtain the highest rank and I wish to obtain the character Alok”

Jonathan 12 years old about Free Fire: “I get angry when I lose, I have the aspiration to be better, but with the cell phone that I have I can't do much, sometimes the application closes or it crashes, then I lose the game, as I stay stuck as if I was still or dead. I would also like to start my own klan, although now I am in 2”.

53The representations of corporeality and life are related to the cult of the body, speed, strength and the expansion of human possibilities with devices and weapons that can be logged into online and offline spaces, making it possible to buy with real money.

54From the instance of recognition of our research, boys and girls build identity through identifications with skills of the characters that are represented in interactive cultural consumption. Screens offer them horizons of questioning. They are producing multiple and changing identities, they consider the skins and the powers abilities that help them win the game or have more followers.

55Jonatan 12 years on Free Fire “The one I like the most, I mean my favorite, is Alok, because of his fighting skills. Alok has a fist that instantly kills Kla (another character). It also has an area, this area covers you and if you use it it can heal you. If I have this character, I recharged diamonds and bought it. Also another one that I like a lot is Allato, because of the quantity/quality of life he has (how long he can last, survive in games... and because of his life story. He lost an arm."

56Juan 10 years on Free Fire; “I like Andrew who has his ability in the special survival vest and is an armor specialist, he was a policeman. This ability decreases the durability loss from the vest to Andrew.”

57Jonahtan 12 years Nahuel 12 years on Free Fire: “The characters have stories that one can find in everyday life. “Among some characters they are family or couple, for example, there is a couple of three. There Celes sent you a video of a youtuber that explains the history and description of each character briefly in case you want to put everything about the characters.

58Candela 10 years on Roblox “Yes, I choose the clothes, look: I go into personalizing, here I have characters to wear and here I have a body, skin, heads, face, torsos…I can choose what I want. I choose the character that I like and enter. This is the Tycoon… I go in and I can make houses”

59Lucas: “I always check what new skins there are and change them. I like to try on different layers" says Lucas" "now you can do dances and then when I kill a creeper I start dancing and that's really fun”

60Isabella, 8 years old: "I put wings on my avatar, clothes with a chain and an avocado on my shoulder. The hair color I chose is blonde. I also change my avatar's accessories when I get tired."

61In relation to the proposals of movement, the representations of consumption interpellate imitation and copying to reach the model. These models are promoted by influencers, gamers, streamers and algorithmic government segmentation. It is important to mention that the interfaces do not enable other possibilities than those predetermined in the production instance.

Taiel 10 year old: “I look on Youtube and there they explain to me how to download things and I do it. There are many videos of people who explain to you what you have to know, that's why I know it and everyone knows it“.

Sun 8 years old about Roblox: “I knew about the game because I saw that many youtubers played it and I asked my dad if he could download it for me. For example Lina Vallejos”.

Isabela 8 years “Some youtubers who are dedicated to making videos about the game, request that at the time of purchase of the accessories that they sell, a “code” is placed that they leave in their videos in the game (as if it were used a discount code for online purchases from any company), which according to the girls allows these youtubers to position themselves as influencers”.

Juana: “I identify more with Luisa, she makes funny videos and because I like videos too. Her TikTok is called @lulu99 who is a Youtuber but who also became a TikToker and who is also very famous on TikTok”.

62Within the game mechanics, the associations of certain body movements within the digital space in relation to certain body movements of the hands frequently arise. On the other hand, the chances of winning incite to react with more speed in a learning process that leads to automation. The more automated the movement, the faster the reaction, the greater the chance of winning.

Mateo 7 years “Roblox is managed with some buttons that it has: an up arrow, which is to jump and a small round one, which is to slide it and be able to walk. When you fall you return to the same place. It's about not falling, or not stepping on things you don't have to step on. I… for example, I jump a few things and I fall and it's like I can see everything I have to do, all the way I have to go to reach the goal of the game, when I fall or step on the wrong thing I die and it's It's like I'm falling, and there while I'm falling I can see all the levels that I need to win. So what I don't have to touch is something red. I don't know how to tell you. There I sent you a photo so you can understand me a little better: (attached photo)”

Jesus 6 years on Free Fire: “First you have to enter the game, then you touch where it says “touch to start”, then you choose a character and you look at some little words that you have on the side that says “store” there you look things that you can exchange for the coins and diamonds that you earned when you killed your enemies, then you wait a little while and then you are already in the place where the plane leaves that takes you to a place. When you're in the plane you jump and then your parachute opens and then you land in a place. As soon as you arrive you have to start running and shoot, if someone appears, until you kill him. You have to hide so they don't kill you. As you run, little boxes appear with weapons and medicine that you have to grab. Another thing you can do is also use a car or a motorcycle if it appears on the road. oh! You also have to always be in the "safe zone" (it's like a force field, which gets smaller as time goes by, and you always have to try to be there). What matters most is that they don't kill you, because that's where you lose."

63Figure 8: Just dance interface Body icons to copy movements

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64It is also common, both in networks and in video games and in the plots of series, to find expressive potentialities of surveillance technologies such as control, geolocation and statistical prediction. The vertical gaze of almost all games that are located on maps accounts for the transformations from the patriarchal gaze to the posthuman gaze, that is, with machinic components (Latour, 1991), which could not necessarily be achieved by a human body, neither male nor female (Steyerl, 2012).

Taiel, 11 años sobre Fort Nite: “El juego comienza cuando te tiras del paracaídas a la region del mapa que elegis”.

John 8 years: “Completing the data upload will deliver money and loot directly to the location. The data that must be sent, being soldiers, is government data, locations of people, information on the location of some military base 3 . This data changes in each mission.

65Regarding rituality, routines are established in everyday life making possible the establishment of another type of rituality in digital spaces. Spatiality changes but temporalities change as well. This generates, each time, processes of subjectivation in continuity, on the one hand, and problems linked to the split between cognitive energy and organic physical energy, on the other. The demand for attention within the screens cannot be answered by the limited energy of the organic body that drives the consoles.

Lucas “Vos podés crear tu propio mundo y jugar con amigos y servidores, que te invitan a participar a su mundo y los invitás al tuyo. Hay muchos minijuegos en otros servidores. Hay uno en el que tenés que romper un huevo para volver a vivir si te matan. Es un juego infinito, podés jugar siempre en el mismo minijuego o en el mismo mundo”.

Lucas 11 year old Free fire: “You want to play all the time, to be the best of all.”

Thian years on Free fire: "Sometimes I go to bed very late because I'm playing all the time or I get up very early and the first thing I do is play."

Juan 10 years on Free fire: "We connect together about 10 times a day"

Juan 10 years on Free fire: "Now that we are not going to school we connect a lot in the afternoon"

Kevin 14 years old on Free Fire: “We play at any time, mostly at night and we stay up until dawn because we play several games, so we always want to win them”

Joaquín and Thiago: we play anywhere, but we prefer to play it in the rooms, since we are quiet there and we can think more calmly and also scream when we lose.

Candela 10 years old Look: I come in here and there are houses that are already built and I have to go to this arrow that tells me, I go in through this door and I have already chosen my house, there a plaque appears, that I have to go and if I press it I buy a dropper, they are of different colors, they are automatic that throw little squares to a magic fountain and generate money to buy windows for example and be able to build my house. I can do many other things, like steal weapons. I can enter some houses and not others, because some are already re-protected. I can choose my house, build and steal weapons, to have my house and my factories. I choose my house with a little ray that comes out of your belly and tells you where to go, and then you go through the door and there

66The argument of being bored and devoting time to consumption enables a new sensorium of anxiety and hyperactivity that legitimizes the monetization of leisure in free time slots. The problem of addictions7 arises from the kids themselves and we believe that it is of vital importance to investigate game ratings (Search ESRB Game Ratings). Adrenaline production works just like any other addiction. In many cases kids say they can't stop playing games or watching series. It is in this same sense that angry emotions arise when a limit to uninterrupted consumption is imposed on them. Whether the limit comes from adults, the Internet connection or devices, the energy expenditure or the loss of the avatar's life, the children mention these frustrations on several occasions and express them with anger.  The interpellation, that is, the strategy of a market that offers upgrades, levels and models to be reached, generate emotions, that is, they aim to interpellate emotions linked to lack.

Juan 10 year old: “ It depends on the task I have that day. First I do my homework or I connect to zoom so that later I have the afternoon off if my mom challenges me. Most days I play a lot”

Felipe: "I like to play for many hours and at night, my mom sometimes challenges me but I turn off the light and she thinks I'm sleeping, luckily I have play in the room"

Felipe, 8 years old: “When my mom calls me to eat, she has to call me many times because I never want to stop playing. It's just that I can't pause and sometimes going to eat is letting them kill me"

Taiel 11 year old: At what time do you play Roblox? Mateo: “andd… almost all day, when my mom leaves me and when I don't have to do homework” "At noon before lunch and in the afternoon, when I finish my homework."

Felipe: “I don't want the quarantine to end because otherwise I won't be able to play like I do now”

Ciro- “Game of 6,7 hours”

Juan, 10 years old, about Free fire: “Before I play I look for my headphones and go to my room so they don't call me and interrupt me in the game”

Lucas says that "my dad plays with me a lot but he also tells me enough and sometimes I get angry because I have to help set the table or do homework and that bores me."

Nahuel 11 years old.“I want to win and so I keep playing, and if I don't win, I realize how much I lack to win. The desire to reach that goal generates adrenaline and the desire for more speed, but I still don't get there. Then I get frustrated and want to go on and start again.”

67In terms of socialization, we observe as a common trait the fact that consumption generates a sense of belonging and that the pandemic legitimized with good reasons the use of digital devices to meet friends. Therefore, the Covid pandemic accelerated a process of digitalization that was already underway and was fundamental for the social life of girls and boys. At the same time, streaming and multiplayer gaming platforms considerably increased the number of users and the profits of the telecommunications industries increased in line with this acceleration of digitization.

Taiel 11 year old: “If I become a friend, I give him things he needs. I don't know, wood or coal. And they give to me. It's like when you have a friend. Things are lent and stuff.”

Pedro 13 year old: “It makes me feel good and happy when I play with my friends”

Jonahtan 12 years old: “When I make friends with someone we ask for their instagrams and after talking a bit we pass on the wsp. Sometimes with some of us we form groups, that is, an account, on Instagram, where we upload photos and videos (captures and recordings) of our characters, games won, when we lose, and things like that”.

68The meanings given by the new generations for the use and appropriation of their consumption are related to generating a sense of belonging and sociability in relation to something that is established as a new common and that basically profanes the values of modernity (Di Palma, 2020). The children identify themselves and design a new common profaning what used to be sacred modern values for their close adults. While this process accounts for the modes of appropriation, it is also used by a capitalism that mutates and turns towards new forms of reorganization. These desecrations arise autonomously from the new generations, but at the same time they are appropriated by capital to produce new social orders that are self-regulated in terms of governmentality (Foucault, 2006).

69Figure 9: Youtubers influencers

Image 1000000000000164000000C642BCC0946EFA4303.png

Jonahatn 12 years on Free Fire: “I see many youtubers and streamers who are gamers, as they explain tactics and techniques to survive and win. Then there are others that I watch to laugh, they are more humorous while playing, and others that spend their entire credit card in the game (such as diamonds and other things that, yes or yes, you have to pay to have them)”

Valeria 11 years old about Fede Vegani Youtber: “I found out about Fede when I was watching YouTube and a suggestion of a video of him on a beach appeared. I saw him for a while and then I left him, but his video came out again so I watched it again and from there I watch it”.

Valeria 11 years old on Fede Vegani Youtber: "Fede in his videos says for example "-if we reach 350 thousand likes in 24 hours, I'll upload a second part tomorrow-". “He also says to subscribe to his channel and to share with friends. I only like, I don't comment and I don't share either "

70The point of view in the construction of the narrative, which is the first-person subjective, with the additional component of virtual simulation and which differs from the audiovisual analogical representation, transforms the modes of identity construction. The identities are manifested from the traits linked to the skills of the characters of the network in all its versions. The participations of some identifications with the skills are ephemeral and changeable. In this sense, the participants opt for the skills that will invest the avatar through the controls. These are movement prompts-commands with some real action targets in virtual space. All of this occurs within the default format options of movement and actions of consumption.

Taiel commented, “I have like 15 worlds! One is called “Taiel”… Another is called “Taiel Suscribe” and another is called “Isla 800” because it is a song that I invented and recorded on YouTube, with the help of my daddy. Tell them to listen to her.”

Lucas points out that “I learn a little to see things, I know things that exist in real life. Like Quartz, which is a stone that I met in Minecraft, but it exists in real life. There are many colors, the one I like is white. Or there are some carnivorous plants that I don't know exist in real life”.

Ciro- "Well, my character is called Steve. It is the name that the play brings, you can change it but it is very complicated. Look, you can choose the creative, here you have to create a new world. Wait, it's loading... You start with a map that you have so you don't get lost, but that's what you choose if you want to or not. Look, here there is a trunk but it is different from real life because here you cut a trunk and the tree does not fall”

Sol 8 years on Roblox: "In adopt we can do things out of the ordinary, we have powers, we can make ourselves invisible, we can buy potions that make us fly and you can also place effects on the tower so that the lasers don't kill you”

71Some ways of making war and, above all, war at a distance, are some of the knowledge that, in some way, would account for new literacies. We recommend watching the documentaries by Harun Faroki called Serious Games8 to start a series of academic research on these topics. The same is true for the cognitive work that demands players to implement game strategies and users of algorithmic positioning. When we look at the capacity of attention to generate these strategies, it seems key then to say that scattered attention appears only in certain contexts.

 Naheul 12 years “If you play as a group (a group made up of four members), and a partner sees that they are about to kill me, he can help me, save me, also if I have no lives or I have a few percent of life left, he can save me. And the same would happen the other way around, if I have to save or help my partner who has no life or whatever.” "If you play 1 vs 49, I mean me versus everyone, then yes, no one can save me, if they kill me they kill me.

Joaquin on Brwl starts 11 years old Some strategies we use to win are: only hide if we have little life left since being a team we have to take care of each other and if we hide we could not do it, mislead our enemies with movements that they do not expect we do, attack a single enemy at a time, break all the boxes we can to get more energy ("energy is very important for the characters because from the energy they have they will be able to move and attack faster. The We see the energy of the characters we choose by a bar that appears above the map”

72Algorithmic segmentation of functionality produces that girls and boys receive viewing recommendations and stay in those same paths to follow influencers and produce content. This makes it impossible for them to access other content and thus remain in the same segmentation.

Isabela 8 años “Algunos youtubers que se dedican a hacer videos sobre el juego, solicitan que en el momento de la compra de los accesorios que ellos vendan se coloque un “código” que ellos dejan en sus videos en el juego (como si se utilizara un código de descuento en compras on-line de cualquier empresa), que de acuerdo a las niñas les permite posicionarse  a esos youtubers como influencers”.

73Monetization models (Srnicek, 2020) are linked to the attention economy, data extractivism, through business strategies such as marathons, updates, PNT and merchandising. The consumption of the new childhoods is consolidated in solitude, in their own rooms, with devices that produce isolation to achieve greater attention, in spaces away from adult care. From the analyses of the Frankfurt School and the Birmingham School in the middle and end of the last century, from the deaths and disappearances of moms and dads in Disney's plots to the current deaths like those made almost without realizing it by the Minions, the authority figures of modernity are replaced by peer mediations.

74New forms of algorithmic governance (Rodriguez, P, 2015) operate in the virtual environments of exception with non-human actors trying to anticipate and modify behavior by acting as new mediators in the interfaces. In virtual environments there are mediations, but not the mediations of modernity. These new mediations, which are algorithmic and artificial intelligence combinations, are driven and programmed by hardware and software development teams within the framework of digital market strategies. These new business models of the New Economy (Marazzi, ), of platform capitalism, of data extractivism and algorithmic governance (Acosta, F, 2021), produce new forms of governmentality (which "prevent to drive" with some degree of uncertainty).

Jonatahn 112 años “Mods can also be installed, which are add-ons or modifications to improve different aspects of the game. There are mods that incorporate new objects, new dimensions, new foods, new accessories, new mobs, etc. for example, “Natural Disasters”, which is a Mod that incorporates more extreme adventures and, as its name indicates, natural catastrophes; a hurricane can, for example, appear in the middle of the game. Some mods are paid”.

Taiel 11 year old: “The good thing about Minecraft is that it never ceases to amaze you and whenever it is updated it has new things”

Felipe 8 years old: "I can only play for a few hours because my brother also uses the computer, that's why I'm raising money to buy a tower. it's a gamer pc, it's great"

Ciro: “I would like to have dollars to buy characters but that is very expensive so I have to have the ones that the game gives you, I cannot spend on that, it is a lot of money”

Felipe: "My grandmother lends me her credit card and I give her the money, but not always because I don't have that many savings."

Pedro, 13 years old: “When the objectives can vary, there comes a time when they are repeated and the emotion is lost. They always try to play new missions if there are any and if not, they vary between game modes. These are always "the same" but what varies is the gaming experience since each time you play it is not with the same people or against the same enemies. The weapons are not always in the same place, nor are the vehicles, etc”.

Joaquín Jara 20: “There are many characters. As you pass the levels they are unlocked”.

Sol 8 year old: "There are different servers, you can have a private server but it costs money or if you can't enter a common server and your friend can join the server you are on. Doing those things gives us money in the game as a prize. You can become a baby or big when you want”

75New business models make possible the monetization of leisure time or what Roblox calls the interactive leisure sector9. The metadata associated with an IP on a device serves as raw material for orienting sales according to increasingly segmented profiles, and orients tastes and preferences.

76This, translated to the new generations, means that the energy expended by a body connected to a console or digital device is transformed into data that is then monetized by the telecommunications industries. Approaching the extraction of energies in the instance of cognitive consumption is possible only if we consider this articulation of bodies on-off line.

77Figure 10: Nintendo Metadata that they save in the Nintendo cloud. “Save data”

Image 100000000000013B000000B003C4B25E2B217621.png

78In relation to the transformations of the game and the pandemic, we founded that the virus and the compulsory isolation accelerated the digitazation processes and new bussines models legitimizing the uses of screens and the number of hours on digital gaming.

Evangelina, 11 years old: “Ehh… TikTok didn't change almost anything due to the pandemic, just more people started installing it. And also in a section it will give you advice on how to take care of the coronavirus and all that information. Basic things, for example, washing your hands more often, what to do if you come back from the street or if you come back from paying the electricity or bills, or things like that”.}

Maximum 11 years: "No, the only thing we noticed is that at the beginning of the pandemic, there began to be many more people playing, which caused the servers to go wrong and the internet to go wrong because of so many people. "

Maximum 11 years “I play most of the time at the table in the living room, I play from afternoon to night, I play lying down and sitting down, when there is no quarantine I always play at home. Quarantine didn't affect me because I always play at home."

Jesus, 6 years old“ No, since I'm not going to school and I study at home, I can play a little more often. There is nothing of a virus, only that you have to kill your enemies and that they do not kill you, otherwise you lose.

“The game did not make any changes as a result of the pandemic. The app always does (and did) updates when it wants”

79Proposal for discussion
When we think of the new generations, we do so in relation to the ideas of childhood and youth of modernity. We believe that it is best to conceive them as subjects of rights. We comply with political correctness when we defend access to food, education, housing and health needs and, as the 20th century progressed, we added the banners of the right to digital gaming, the right to participation and the right to comprehensive sexuality education. With these certainties built by the common sense of the twentieth century, the daily life of the twenty-first century goes on today. However, human, youth and children's rights protect the person of the physical carnal body and not its metadata, which circulate in digital spaces.

80This is where one of the problems that call for thinking about the processes of subjectivation today arises, those on-offline continuities that boys and girls inhabit today, which are performative of their ways of life.  They inhabit articulately physical territorial spaces regulated by the system of law and, through their metadata, virtual spaces of exception (Agamben, 1995, 2003) where the rights achieved in the 20th century are not guaranteed.

81Our proposal for reflection on the transformations of contemporary sensibility consists in thinking of digital technology as a new technicality that carries new questioning discourses that, in the midst of cultural transformations, enable new processes of subjectivation. As a result, modes of behavior are proposed, ways of embodying bodies, ways of inhabiting times and spaces that are not the ones we used to know. That is to say, from the screens today a new common sense is disputed. Moreover, discursive plots make possible new forms of sociality and senses of belonging. And while screens propose some possible models of inhabiting the world, bodies and their discursive practices, which are performative, also engage in all kinds of dialogues involving resistance, concessions and negotiations according to the contexts of everyday life. There, in that in-between, in the interstices where thresholds are opened, we are interested in generating new horizons of the possible and the enormous task of guaranteeing the rights achieved so far and creating new digital rights such as the right to privacy, the right to interruption, the right to the olive tree, the right to the open spectrum, among others.


82The digitization of the telecommunications spectrum changes the ways of narrating and it brings consequences on the processes of subjetivacion. For the moment the social representations that emerge from the screens are not guaranteed by the rights system as we knew them thought in modernity. In fact, struggles such as visibility, participation and access to communication that arose from the Right to Communication , are issues today enabled by the telecommunications industry that enable a place for voice within predetermined options for hardware and software within platforms that are based on a business model based on the attention economy and the data market. This new technicality generates tensions and conflicts that are novel and that require us to approach new conceptual theoretical frameworks that account for the transformations of power relations where the ways of being in the world of new childhoods are inserted.




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6 Research channel Pakapaka 2013 a 2015 access in: Interpelación y reconocimiento de la cultura mediática en la convergencia digital pública infantil: nuevos sentidos político-estratégicos del campo Comunicación/Educación para ampliar horizontes de significación en la era de la onda cuadrada

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To quote this document

Cielo Salviolo et Carolina Di Palma, «Discursive interpellation, metadata and algorithmic combinations in digital interfaces: new strategic political meanings for thinking about public digital convergence and new rights of children», French Journal For Media Research [online], Browse this journal/Dans cette revue, 16/2021 Children and youths in the center, last update the : 06/02/2022, URL :

Quelques mots à propos de :  Cielo Salviolo

Cielo Salviolo 

consultant and researcher in Communication, Culture, and Childhood and an audiovisual content producer focused on children. She participated in the design and development of Pakapaka, the first Public TV Channel for kids in Argentina, and is the current Director of the channel. She performed as content and creative adviser for this channel and for different institutions in Latin America.

Since 2011 she has been conducting the Children's Television Lab for Latin America, an organization specialized in quality content for children on multiple platforms. She is also a UNICEF Consultant.

Cielo Salviolo has a B.S. in Communication Studies and has a postgraduate degree in Human Rights (Sweden-Costa Rica), in Children's Rights and Early Childhood Education (Flacso). She was Chair Professor of Cinema and Television for children at the University of Buenos Aires, member of the Argentinian Council on Children and the Media of the AFSCA (Authority of Application of the Law of Audiovisual Services of Communication) and General Secretariat of the Argentine Committee for the Application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Quelques mots à propos de :  Carolina Di Palma

Carolina Di Palma

Ph.D. candidate in Communication at UNLP and PPGCOM UFF-Brazil

Research line: Aesthetics and Communication Technologies,

Body Field, Subjectivity and New Technologies.

Master in Communication and Education at the National University of La Plata with a thesis on Children's Public Digital Convergence.

Responsible for Digital Convergence projects of Pakapaka Public TV Channel in Argentina since 2010.

Professor of Culture, Communication, and Education.

Workshop of New Childhood and Youth in teacher training institutes of the Directorate of Culture and Education of the Province of Buenos Aires since 2009.



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